, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked sovereign state located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers. It borders South Africa to the south, Botswana to the west, Zambia to the northwest, and Mozambique to the east and northeast. The capital and largest city is Harare.
Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty in April 1980. The country then rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations (later suspended in 2003), and became a member of the United Nations and the Southern African Development Community (SADC).
An ethnically diverse country of roughly 13 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English
, and Ndebele
the most commonly used. President Robert Mugabe serves as head of state and government, and as commander-in-chief of the armed forces.